Istoria vw passat

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Re: Istoria vw passat

Postby Patthy VIP » 07 Apr 2012 12:32

The Volkswagen Passat is a large family car marketed by Volkswagen through six design generations since 1973. Between the Volkswagen Golf / Volkswagen Jetta and the Volkswagen Phaeton in the current Volkswagen line-up, the Passat and its derivatives have been badged variously as Dasher, Santana, Quantum, Magotan, Corsar and Carat. The successive generations of the Passat carry the VW internal designations B1, B2, etc.

In 2008, Volkswagen extended its range with the launch of the Passat CC, a "four-door coupé" version of the Passat.

Volkswagen currently markets two variants of the Passat globally. In January 2011, Volkswagen announced that the new mid-size sedan (NMS) being built at the Volkswagen Chattanooga Assembly Plant for the North American market would be named the Passat.[1] Shanghai Volkswagen Automotive also manufactures the Passat NMS in its Nanjing factory. The NMS is not going to be sold outside the North American and Chinese Markets.[citation needed] A different B7 Passat model is sold outside of these markets. The Volkswagen Passat NMS won the 2012 Motor Trend Car of the Year.

History

Following the Volkswagen Group's acquisition of Audi in 1964, Volkswagen used new engineering expertise to develop a modern front-wheel drive car with a water-cooled engine, and thus the Passat and Golf (the latter being introduced in 1974) were the first of a new generation of Volkswagen cars. The first Passat was developed partly from the Audi 80/Fox and, until 2005, the two shared a history.

During its development phase, the Passat was designated internally as EA400 (Entwicklungsauftrag 400, or "Development Order 400"), and well before its launch, production of the Volkswagen Type 3 at the Wolfsburg plant had been stopped in order to free up capacity for the new car.[2] Wolfsburg was able to ramp up production carefully: directly before Passat production started the lines were used to assemble small volumes of the car's Audi 80 sibling which had been launched a year earlier.[2]

The nameplate Passat derives from the German word for trade wind — and the period in its history when Volkswagen named vehicles after prominent winds, including also Golf (after the Gulf stream), Jetta (after Jet stream), and Scirocco (after Sirocco).


B1 (Typ 32, 1973–1981)

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Volkswagen Passat B1 3-door (Europe)

The original Volkswagen Passat was launched in 1973. The body types offered originally were two- and four-door sedans and similar looking three- and five-door versions. Externally all four shared a modern fastback style design, styled by the Italian designer Giorgetto Giugiaro. In essence, the first Passat was a fastback version of the mechanically identical Audi 80 sedan, introduced a year earlier. A five-door station wagon/estate was introduced in 1974. In Europe, the Passat was equipped with two rectangular, two round 7-inch, or four round 5.5-inch headlights depending on specification. The Passat was one of the most modern European family cars at the time, and was intended as a replacement for the aging Volkswagen Type 3 and Type 4.

The Passat originally used the four-cylinder OHC 1.3 l (55 PS (40 kW; 54 hp)) and 1.5 l (75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp)/85 PS (63 kW; 84 hp)) petrol engines also used in the Audi 80—longitudinally mounted with front-wheel drive, in Audi tradition, with either a four-speed manual transmission or three-speed automatic. It had a MacPherson strut front suspension with a solid axle/coil spring setup at the rear.

The SOHC 1.5 was enlarged to 1.6 l in August 1975 with unchanged power ratings and slightly higher torque ratings. In July 1978 the Passat Diesel became available, equipped with the VW Golf`s 1.5 l Diesel (50 PS (37 kW; 49 hp)), followed in February 1979 by the Passat GLI with a fuel-injected version of the 1.6 l engine.

The whole range received a facelift in 1977 (launched 1978 outside Europe), featuring an interior upgrade and subtly revised styling including repositioned indicators and depending on model, either four round or two rectangular headlights.[3]

In North America, the car was called the Volkswagen Dasher.[4] The three- and five-door hatchback and a station wagon model were launched in North America for and during the 1974 model year. Sole available engine was a carburetted 1.5 l inline-four developing 75 hp (56 kW) (or 70 hp (52 kW) in 1975), supplanted from model year 1976 by a Bosch fuel-injected 1.6 l four 78 hp (58 kW). North American cars were equipped with single DOT standard headlights.

In 1978 the Dasher received a facelift along the lines of the European Passat, with quad sealed beam headlights and big polyurethane covered bumpers. The trim was also upgraded and the ride softened. 1979 saw the introduction of the 1.5 l diesel engine, which produced just 48 PS (35 kW) in the 1130 kg (2500 lb) car. 0–100 km/h time for the Diesel was 19.4 seconds, 6.2 seconds slower than the gasoline (petrol) engine. All gasoline engines were dropped for North America in 1981 in preparation for the next generation.[5]

In Brazil, the Passat B1 was produced from 1974 until 1988. Since the Audi 80 was not marketed in Brazil, there was no need to give the Passat a different front-end treatment. During its long life cycle many improvements from the B2 platform where introduced, like its 1.6 and 1.8-liter engines, a Brazil-specific face-lift in 1985, and a five-speed gearbox. A sports version, named Passat TS 1.6 and later Passat GTS 1.8 Pointer was also introduced.


B2 (Typ 32B, 1981–1988)

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Volkswagen Passat B2 wagon (Europe)

The second generation Volkswagen Passat was launched in 1981. The platform, named B2, was slightly longer and the car's updated styling was instantly recognisable as a Passat, with the most obvious difference being the rectangular headlights. In addition to the Passat hatchbacks and Variants (estate/wagon), there was also a conventional three-box saloon, which until the 1985 facelift was sold as the Volkswagen Santana in Europe. In North America, the Passat/Santana was sold as the Volkswagen Quantum, available in three-door hatchback, four-door sedan, and a wagon model, but the five-door hatchback was never sold there and the three-door hatchback was dropped after less than two years. The four-wheel drive Syncro version was introduced in October 1984, initially only with the more powerful five-cylinder engine.

The Santana was also produced in China, Brazil, Mexico (as the Corsar, from 1984 and 1988) and Argentina (as the Carat between 1987 and 1991). In Brazil, the Santana station wagon was sold as the Quantum. The Passat saloon and estate were produced in South Africa for their local market until 1987.

Like the previous generation, the B2 Passat was mainly sold with four-cylinder petrol and diesel engines. Unlike its predecessor, however, top-of the line versions received five-cylinder Audi or VW engines of 1.9–2.2 litres.[6][7] The 5-cylinder version was sold in the U.S. as the Quantum GL-5. In addition to four- and five-speed manuals and three-speed automatic gearboxes, the Passat/Santana was also available with the VW concern's interesting 4+E transmission. This, also called the "Formel E" had a particularly high top gear, which combined with a freewheeling mechanism, provided better gas mileage. An automatic stop/start was also available in some markets. The four-wheel-drive system used in the Passat Variant Syncro shared the mechanics of the Audi 80 quattro and not the Volkswagen Golf Syncro. The Syncro's bottom plate was almost entirely different, requiring a transmission tunnel, a relocated gas tank and no spare tire well (to make room for the complex rear axle assembly). Only the more popular estate was reengineered. Syncro was also available in the North American market, only with the five-cylinder engine.

In 1985 the range received a slight facelift, consisting of new, larger bumpers, interior retouches, a new front grille and new taillights on the hatchback versions. The two-door hatchback was discontinued while the Santana nameplate was dropped in Europe. The saloon's front end was now the same as the hatchback and estate. The North American version, still known as the Quantum, gained European-style composite headlamps.

On March 31, 1988 production ended (although Syncro models continued in production until June) with 3,345,248 built in Germany. World production totals amount to at least 4.5 million units.


B3 and B4 (Typ 35i, 1988–1996)

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Volkswagen Passat B3 sedan (Europe)

The third generation Passat was introduced in March 1988 in Europe, 1990 in North America, and 1995 in South America. The lack of a grille made the car's front end styling reminiscent of older, rear-engined Volkswagens such as the 411, and also doubled as a modern styling trend. The styling was developed from the 1981 aerodynamic (cd 0.25) Auto 2000 concept car.[8][9][10]

At the time it was the first Passat to be built on a Volkswagen-designed platform, rather than sharing one with an Audi saloon. The car, although designated B3 in Volkswagen's platform nomenclature, was based largely on the A platform as used for the smaller Golf model, but was stretched in all directions. Many components are shared directly between these vehicles. Only 4-door saloon and 5-door estate versions were available, without the fastback option of previous models. It was marketed under the Passat name in all markets; in North America, this was a first.

The fuel-injected petrol engines gave better performance and refinement than the carburettor units previously used. They were mounted transversely, and the floorpan was engineered to accept Volkswagen's 'Syncro' four-wheel drive system. Engine options were the 2.0 litre 16-valve engine in the GL model, 1.8-litre engine in the CL model (not available in North America, all CLs, GLs, and GLSs had the 2.0 16v), Volkswagen's new 2.8-litre VR6 engine (also used in the Golf and Corrado) in the GLX/GLS model (introduced in 1991 in Europe and 1992 in North America), and the G60 engine (only available on the Syncro model in Canada for the North American market). The VR6 engine gave the top-of-the-range Passat a top speed of 224 kilometres per hour (139 mph). The 1.9-litre diesel engine was also available as an option.


1993 facelift (Passat B4)

800px-Volkswagen_Passat_Variant_B4.JPG

Volkswagen Passat Variant (Version B4)

The B3 Passat was heavily facelifted in 1993 and although it was designated B4, it was not an all-new model. The facelift revised external body panels except for the roof and glasshouse, with most obvious exterior change seeing the re-introduction of a grille to match the style of the other same-generation Volkswagen models of the era, such as the Mk3 Golf and Jetta. The interior was mildly updated and included safety equipment such as dual front airbags and seat belt pre-tensioners, although the basic dashboard design remained unchanged.

The car was available with a Turbocharged Direct Injection (TDI) diesel engine - an inline four-cylinder 1.9 litre turbodiesel, generating 210 newton metres (155 lbf·ft) of torque at 1,900 rpm, 66 kilowatts (90 PS; 89 bhp) at 3,750 rpm. It carried a U.S. EPA fuel efficiency rating for the sedan of 45 miles per US gallon (5.2 L/100 km; 54 mpg-imp) highway. Combined with a 98 litres (21.6 imp gal; 25.9 US gal) -28 litres (6.2 imp gal; 7.4 US gal) reserve option fuel tank, the B4 TDI wagon had a 1800+ km (1200+ mi) range on a single tank of fuel. The B4 TDI wagon saw less than 1,000 sales in the U.S. during its 1996 to 1997 lifespan.


B5 and B5.5 (Typ 3B/3BG, 1996–2005)

800px-1998-2001_Volkswagen_Passat_wagon_--_01-07-2012_front.jpg

Volkswagen Passat B5 wagon (US)

An all-new Passat, based on the Volkswagen Group B5 platform, was launched in 1996 in Europe, and 1998 in North America. Its PL45 platform was shared with the first-generation "Typ 8D" Audi A4, which was unveiled 2 years earlier, and saw a return to the Passat sharing its platform with Audi's equivalent model for the first time since the second-generation (B2) Passat, which shared its platform with the second-generation "Typ 81" Audi 80/Audi 90 (the A4 is the successor to the Audi 80 line).

The Passat introduced a new design language, first seen on the Concept 1 concept car, for the latest generation of Volkswagens such as the Mk4 Golf, Bora and Polo Mk4. Aerodynamic work gave the B5 Passat a coefficient of drag of 0.27 (saloon model).

The car featured fully independent four-link front suspension; and a semi-independent torsion beam for front-wheel-drive models or a fully independent suspension on the 4motion 4WD models. 4WD was introduced in 1997 as an option for the 1.8, 2.8 V6, 1.9 TDI and 2.5 V6 TDI engines, using a second-generation Torsen T-2 based 4WD system to minimise loss of traction. The 1.8 litre petrol engine in the Passat and Audi A4 has a lower oil capacity than transverse applications of the same engine (4.6 quarts in transverse, 4.3 quarts longitudinal), and may suffer from oil sludge problems as a result, if not changed at regular intervals with fully synthetic oils. Three transmission options were available: a 5-speed manual transmission, a 6-speed manual transmission (codename 01E) and a 5-speed automatic transmission with tiptronic.


2001 facelift (Passat B5.5)

800px-Volkswagen_Passat_sedan_--_08-12-2010.jpg

Volkswagen Passat B5.5 sedan (US)

B5 Passat models built after late 2000, also known as B5.5 models, received minor styling and mechanical revisions including revised projector-optic headlights, bumpers, tail lights, and chrome trim.

A 4.0 litre W8 engine producing 275 PS (202 kW) was introduced in 2001 in a luxury version of the car that included standard 4motion all-wheel drive.[11] This engine was intended to be a test bed for Volkswagen Group's new W engine technology, which would later make an appearance on the W12 in the Phaeton and Audi A8, and the W16 engine in the Bugatti Veyron. The engine was discontinued in 2004.

In 2003, a powerful 2.0-litre Turbocharged Direct Injection (TDI) diesel engine producing 136 PS (100 kW) was added (making the Passat the only mid-sized diesel powered car sold in the U.S.). This variant was sold from 2004 to 2005.

A lengthened platform went on to underpin the 'Passat' that was introduced in China in late 1999 by Shanghai-Volkswagen. This long-wheelbase version was rebadged and launched in Europe as the Škoda Superb in 2001. Both have a 100 millimetres (3.9 in) longer wheelbase and length than the standard B5 Passat. An updated version called the Passat Lingyu was released in 2005. This receives the 2.0-litre, 1.8-litre Turbo, and 2.8-litre V6 petrol engines. At the 2009 Shanghai Motor Show, an updated Passat Lingyu was shown.

In the UK, Top Gear's 2005 survey rated the Passat as the third least satisfying large family car to own, with only the Fiat Marea and Rover 45 Saloon receiving a worse rating.[citation needed] It fell behind most of its crucial rivals, namely the Ford Mondeo, Vauxhall Vectra, Citroën C5 and Peugeot 406.


B6 and B7 (Typ 3C, 2005–present)

800px-VW_Passat_B6_Variant_front_20090412.jpg

Volkswagen Passat B6 wagon (Europe)

The B6 Passat was first displayed at the Geneva Motor Show in March 2005, and launched in Europe in the summer of 2005. Unlike its predecessor, the B6 Passat no longer shared its platform with Audi's equivalent model (the Audi A4). Based on a modified version of the Mk5 Golf's PQ46 platform, the B6 featured a transverse rather than longitundinal engine layout of its predecessor.

The transverse-engine layout of the four-wheel drive version, marketed as 4motion, dictated a switch from the Torsen centre differential of the B5, to the Haldex Traction multi-plate clutch. The change to the Haldex system also changes the handling closer to a front-wheel drive car. Compared to the Torsen, the Haldex can direct torque more unequally to the front wheels (from 100:0 to 50:50 front-to-rear bias), thus providing a wider bias range than the 75:25 to 25:75 of the B5 Passat. Haldex is a reactive-type system, behaving as a front-wheel-drive vehicle until slippage is detected, at which point up to a maximum of 50% of the torque can be transmitted to the rear axle. See the Audi-related quattro (four-wheel-drive system) article for more information.

Fuel Stratified Injection is used in nearly every petrol engined version of the Passat, ranging from 1.6 to 3.6 litres (the 1.6-litre DOHC can reach 100 km/h (62.1 mph) in 11.5 seconds, and 200 km/h (124.3 mph) for manual transmission versions), but the multi-valve 2.0-litre Turbocharged Direct Injection (TDI) diesel is the most sought after version in Europe (available in both 140 PS (103 kW; 138 hp) and 170 PS (125 kW; 168 hp) variants). In the U.S. market, a 200 PS (147 kW; 197 hp) 2.0-litre turbocharged I4 is the base engine, or a 280 PS (206 kW; 276 hp) 3.6-litre VR6 engine as the upgrade, with six-speed manual (only available on the base 2.0 T model) and automatic transmissions. As of the 2009 model year, the VR6 engine and 4motion option were no longer available in the US on the Passat sedan and wagon, but are available on the Passat CC.[12]

In February 2008, the 2.0 FSI was replaced with the new Audi-developed 1.8 TSI engine and 6-speed automatic transmission. The 1.8 T is rated at 160 PS (118 kW; 158 hp), 250 newton metres (184 lbf·ft) and reaches 0–100 km/h in 8.6 seconds, reaching a top speed of 220 kilometres per hour (136.7 mph). At the same time the 2.0 TDI engine from the Audi range incorporating common rail injection technology superseded the existing 2.0 TDI units. The common rail technology uses less fuel and is quieter in operation. This engine is part of the wider Volkswagen Group policy for engine sharing.

The Passat Estate won overall winner of Practical Caravans Towcar of the Year Awards 2008 for its array of towing features such as its Trailer Stability Programme.

In Asia, the PQ46 Passat was released by FAW-VW as the Magotan, after Volkswagen's other joint venture Shanghai Volkswagen had decided to continue using the B5 platform for the Passat and the Passat Lingyu (long-wheelbase Passat).[13] Since August 2010 the wagon version of Passat B6 will be offered in Asia, which is a fully imported model. But this car is simply called Volkswagen Variant in China, in order not to refer the name "Passat" or "Magotan".

In 2012, a 1.2 TSI engine will be available.[citation needed]


Passat CC

800px-VW_Passat_CC_R-Line_–_Frontansicht,_7._April_2011,_Velbert.jpg

Volkswagen Passat CC R-Line (Europe)

The CC ("Comfort Coupé")[14] is a 4-door "coupé" version of the Passat. It debuted at the 2008 North American International Auto Show in Detroit. Originally aimed at competing with the similarly styled Mercedes CLS, the Passat CC intends to be more stylish and luxurious than the previously released Passat B6. In the U.S., the name "Passat" was dropped, and the car is being sold as "CC".[15] Some options specific to the CC include hands-free parking, lane-departure prevention, intelligent cruise control, and adaptive suspension. Engines offered in the CC mirror those of the regular Passat, with options of the base 2.0-liter turbocharged four-cylinder, or the optional 3.6-liter V-6, which includes 4-motion all-wheel drive. Although the CC is marketed as a more luxurious Passat B6, it comes in with a lower price tag. While the MSRP of a Passat B6 is $28,300, the CC comes with a base price of $27,100.

The Chinese-made CC was released by FAW-VW on July 15, 2010. Two engine options are provided: 1.8T and 2.0T.[16]

Volkswagen facelifted the Passat CC in late 2011 for the 2012 year with styling updates akin to those of the larger Phaeton. For the updated model, Volkswagen has dropped the "Passat" name for all markets, now matching the "Volkswagen CC" branding used since 2008 in North America.[17]


2010 facelift (Passat B7)


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2011 Volkswagen Passat 118TSI wagon (Australia)

The B6 Passat was facelifted by Klaus Bischoff and Walter de Silva,[citation needed] and was unveiled at the Paris Motor Show in September 2010. Although designated "B7", the car is not an all-new model. The facelift resulted in new external body panels except for the roof and glasshouse, with the prominent changes to the grille and headlights. Overall height and width dimensions are unchanged from the B6 Passat, while length increases by 4 mm. New features include a fatigue detection system and an automatic "city emergency braking" system.[18] It arrived at dealerships in mid-November 2010.

The interior featured minor detail changes from the B6, although the basic dashboard design remain unchanged.

In India, the B6 version is supposed to be replaced with B7 version. Also the FAW-VW-built Magotan will also be replaced by a long-wheelbase version of the Passat B7. The new model will be exclusive to the Indian market, and at least 100 mm longer than the European B7. The Indian market is also likely to get the B7 which appears to be only a facelift of B6 and not a new platform.[19]

In China, the FAW-VW-built Magotan will also be replaced by a long-wheelbase version of the Passat B7. The new model will be exclusive to the Chinese market, and at least 100 mm longer than the European B7.[20] Engines available for Magotan B7L are ranging from 1.4T, 1.8T to 2.0T, a special-developed EA390 3.0L VR6 FSI engine is opted for the top model.


Passat (North American and China markets) (2011–present)

800px-2012_Volkswagen_Passat_--_NHTSA_2.jpg

2012 Volkswagen Passat S (US)


Known as the New Midsize Sedan (NMS) before its unveiling in January 2011, this unique larger model designed specifically for the North American market replaces the B6 Passat sedan and wagon for the 2012 model year in Canada, the United States and Mexico. It is also sold in China alongside the Passat Lingyu and Magotan. North American models will be built at its Chattanooga Assembly Plant,[21] while Chinese market versions are built by 上海大众汽车Shanghai-VW in 2011.[20]

The Volkswagen Passat NMS won the 2012 Motor Trend Car of the Year.


Volkswagen Passat in the United Kingdom

Passat (73-81)

British sales of the original Passat began in the autumn of 1974. At this stage, large family cars were just becoming popular with British buyers. General Motors had just launched the Vauxhall Cavalier, while Ford was in the process of launching its Cortina Mark IV. Foreign exports like the Peugeot 504 and Fiat 132 were also giving buyers a practical alternative to traditional "booted" sedans like the Morris Marina.

The Mk1 Passat was on sale for six years in Britain. Sales were fairly strong and it firmly established itself as one of the first popular foreign large family cars in Britain. It gave buyers almost unmatched levels of quality and comfort in this class of car, and proved to be more durable than just about all of its competitors.

Passat (81-88)

The Volkswagen Passat Mk2 arrived in British dealerships towards the end of 1981, and it was an instant hit with buyers, who appreciated its ultra-practical executive sedan-like bodystyle that gave it class-leading levels of practicality.

Build quality, reliability and comfort were also impressive, and helped justify its slightly high asking price which put it up against larger cars like the Ford Granada and Vauxhall Carlton, even though it was still very much marketed as an alternative to the Ford Sierra and Austin Montego.

The Mk4 Passat continued this trend from it's launch in 1989 until it's demise in 1996, however.

Passat (96-05)

The Volkswagen Passat Mk5 gave British buyers a new benchmark of quality, comfort and refinement in large cars, when sales began in the autumn of 1996. Equipment levels and the choice of engines were better than ever before.

It proved popular from start to finish, never being able to match the sales figures of the Ford Mondeo and Vauxhall Vectra, but giving tough competition for the likes of the Nissan Primera, Peugeot 406 and Mitsubishi Carisma.

It also held its value better than most of its competitors, as its class-leading attributes attracted enough customers for demand to put increased pressure upon supply.

Passat (05-10)

The pre-facelift Passat was, like before, offered in saloon and estate bodystyles, though this time it has been less popular than some of the earlier Passat, despite a wide range of engines and a decent level of equipment being on offer.

It was left behind in the sales charts in 2008 & 2009 by the Ford Mondeo, Vauxhall Vectra/Insignia and Peugeot 407, and has not even been able to match the success of the Toyota Avensis and Citroën C5. It has even struggled to outsell the less famous car upon which it is based — the Škoda Superb.

B7 (2010-)

The 2010 facelift to the Passat is quite a success in the United Kingdom currently. In 2011, it was behind the Vauxhall Insignia in the large family car class, though it didn't match the BMW 3 Series in the compact executive car class.
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Re: Istoria vw passat

Postby onymen » 24 Nov 2012 21:33

E adevarat de Passat-urile cele din perioada 1998-2005 ca au avut probleme la articulatiile pe fata?
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